When the period of primitive emotional development has gone successfully, at about six months the infant’s interactions with his mother (or other primary caregiver) and his nonverbal play show that he is aware of having an inside and an outside, that things come from outside, and that he can be enriched by them, physically and psychically. I believe the term subjective has the same range of meaning for Winnicott as do the terms fantasy and illusion. From this position everything is creative.” (p. 56)  Psychological development can resume at the point where earlier trauma occurred if the client can surrender, in the presence of a trusting other, to the primary experience of the Cosmos and develop the trust to descend into and ascend from the depths of his own psyche. if you show me a baby you certainly show me also someone caring for the baby, or at least a pram with someone’s eyes and ears glued to it. One of the most beautiful and comprehensive symbols for this process, for Voegelin, is the In-Between (metaxy) of which, the Platonic Socrates tell us in the Symposium, he has heard the goddess Diatoma speak: “In the myth told by Diatoma, Eros is the son of Poros (riches) and Penia (poverty); he is a daimon, something between god and man; and the spiritual man (daimonios aner) who is in search of truth is somewhere between knowledge and ignorance (metaxy sophias kai amathias) . . At about seven to nine months there emerges a third organizing experiential perspective, which Stern calls a sense of a subjective self and other. En términos del psicoanalista británico D. W. Winnicott, “handling” (manipulación, manejo, asistencia corporal) es el modo adecuado de manipular y cuidar corporalmente a un bebé; un modo que lo favorece, sobre todo, en su desarrollo espontáneo, en su proceso de personalización. Books | 220-240). * Happiness 39-44). “Handling describes the environmental provision that corresponds loosely with the establishment of a psychosomatic partnership.” (Winnicott 1962, p. 62)  The good-enough mother’s touch facilitates the baby’s development of a sense of having a skin and “indwelling” in his body. Such communication “alone gives the feeling of real” and is, “like the [silent] music of the spheres, absolutely personal. En el desarrollo emocional primitivo Winnicott describe tres funciones maternales: el sostenimiento o sostén (holding), la manipulación o manejo (handling), y la presentación objetal (objet-presenting). Thus, he talks of the illusion created in the infant’s play that he and the mother are one. (1965), The Divided Self:  An Existential Study in Sanity and Madness (London:  Pelican Books). Voegelin’s view on this issue was influenced by his reading of William James and Plato: “In developing his concept of pure experience, James put his finger on the reality of the consciousness of participation, inasmuch as what he calls pure experience is the something that can be put into the context either of the subject’s stream of consciousness or of objects of the external world. [F]or creative living we need no special talent.” (pp. He has presented papers at several meetings of the Eric Voegelin Society. Stern, D. (1985), The Interpersonal World of the Infant:  A View from Psychoanalysis and Developmental Psychology (New York:  Basic Books). a neutral area of experience that will not be challenged. The False Self has one positive and very important function:  to hide the True Self, which it does by compliance with environmental demands . Psychiatrists and psychotherapists have much to learn from these analyses. * Propaganda By “participation,” which is the key symbol in his philosophy, Voegelin means “the reality of being in contact with reality outside myself.” (Voegelin 1989, p. 72)  For Voegelin, as for Gabriel Marcel and Karl Jaspers, the experience of participation involves our whole being and is, therefore, not an intellectual problem to be solved but a mystery to be lived. G. Niemeyer (Columbia, MO:  University of Missouri Press). Inquiry in this area would include exploration of the differentiation of the height of the psyche as part of the healing process. Top | * Gender I then considered their collision with a Winnicott argues that the good-enough mother’s holding, handling, and object presenting together enable the infant to develop the capacity to interact with the mother and others as separate, whole persons. * Questioning Winnicott (1887-1971) est pédiatre de formation et devenu psychanalyste pour enfants en s'inspirant de Klein, et il va plus loin, dans l'apport de l'environnement primaire. However, when there is a high degree of split between a person’s true and false selves, there is found a poor capacity for using symbols and a poverty of cultural living. Thus, he uses the terms fantasy and illusion to refer to two quite different experiences, one of which emerges chronologically before the other. For Voegelin, at the opposite end of the spectrum of mental health from the true self of the man under God is the man who no longer is homo ludens because his psyche has lost touch with the truth of the Cosmos. È importante che nelle prime fasi dello Philosophizing is a healing process in which ever greater insight into the disorder of one’s soul goes hand in hand with ever more open responsiveness to the pull of transcendent truth. Voegelin takes from Laing the idea that a person who functions fairly well in society may suffer from a schizoid condition, that is, a profound division in his experience of himself and others. | In Stern’s theory, all the infant experiences in the first two months are primitive bits of experience emerging into self- and other-invariant constellations. . * Beliefs * Coping Mechanisms We now are in a position to ask, what can we discern as the experiential sources of Winnicott’s work? I have always been quite struck, for example, by the passage in Racker’s classic work on the psychoanalytic process (Racker 1968) in which he appeals to St. Paul’s symbol agape in 1 Corinthians 13 in support of his view that, for healing to occur, the therapist must have faith that the client’s actions have a positive intention. He also was the first to use the term “philosopher.”  Voegelin interprets the fragments as indicating that “human wisdom consists in the consciousness of a limitation in comparison with the divine” and the “philosopher” for Heraclitus as one who is engaged in the search for the One that is wise (pp. The False Self . But if the movements in the depth no longer reach the psyche, the person will no longer have any experiential basis for judging what is true. his or her capacity to allow for events." International The mother may thus hold the child, handle it call a true self hidden, protected by a false self. * Research I think that most of the time he uses fantasy to mean the capacity to symbolize, and he uses illusion to mean the sense that a symbol is identical to what it symbolizes. This aspect of Winnicott’s work is the most important psychoanalytic theory of culture since Freud and has elicited the interest of scholars in disciplines such as literary criticism and theology. Voegelin contends that all philosophical exegeses of the experience of participation must employ mythical symbolism. Through an existential openness that is grounded in the virtues of trust, faith, hope, and love, the philosopher participates in the revelation of the truth of the Whole. En effet, il ne peut se développer correctement sans la présence d’un être humain qui participe au Holding et au Handling : le Holding; qui est l’art de porter physiquement et psychiquement le bébé. One cannot teach a mother to hold, handle, and present herself to her baby sensitively and lovingly, but she can discover the capacity to be sensitive and loving if she trusts herself and her baby and has faith in their ability to get to know each other and to get along well. Parallel Symbols in the Work of Eric Voegelin and Donald Winnicott, Voegelin                                                         Winnicott, Primary experience of the cosmos                           Experience of being, moment of illusion, Existential virtues of faith, hope, love,                      Trust, hope, faith, Play, freedom with mythical symbolism                     Preverbal and symbolic play/fantasy, creative living, In-Between (metaxy) of mutual human                     Potential space, transitional, and divine participation                                            phenomena, culture, True self under God, open to first reality;                 True self/sacred, silent core of self. * SIFT Model The major theme of the paper is that we can use Voegelin’s concept of the primary experience of the cosmos to clarify Winnicott’s ideas about the experiences of being and play that are the core of psychological health. There would be a hallucination of the object if there were memory material for use in the process of creation but this cannot be postulated in consideration of the theoretical first feed. * Warfare * Using humor The first period, extending from birth to about five or six months, he refers to as the period of “primitive emotional development” (Winnicott 1945). . According to Voegelin, we have immediate knowledge of this process “only in its presence.” That raises the question of how we know that we participate in the same process as every other human being. In both Hellenic philosophy and Israelite revelation acts of transcendence dissociate the cosmos-full-of-gods of the primary experience into a world of existing things and a transcendent, divine reality that in philosophy is symbolized as Being and in revelation is symbolized as a personal, creator God. “To be creative,” he writes, “a person must exist and have a feeling of existing, not in conscious awareness, but as a basic place to operate from.” (Winnicott 1970, p. 39)  By the term “place” Winnicott symbolizes, I believe, the cosmos in Voegelin’s sense. to external realities. engendered by the primordial experience of reality as endowed with the constancy and lastingness of structure that we symbolize as the Cosmos. Voegelin, E. (1966), “What is Political Reality?” in Anamnesis, pp. This allows us to make sense of Winnicott’s statements that “[f]antasy [participation in reality] is more primary than reality [the world of existent things], and the enrichment of fantasy [symbolizing] with the world’s riches depends on the experience of illusion [participation in reality],” and that the moment of illusion is “a bit of experience which the infant can take [when his capacities have matured sufficiently] as either his hallucination or a thing belonging to external reality.” (Winnicott 1945, p. 153, 152). Holding “includes the whole routine of care throughout the day and night, and … is not the same with any two infants.”  It “meets the infant’s physiological needs” and protects him from “physiological insult,” “takes account of the infant’s skin sensitivity,” “is reliable … in a way that implies the mother’s empathy,” and “follows the minute day-to-day changes belonging to the infant’s growth and development, both physical and psychological”  (pp. has as its main function the reduction to a minimum of impingements to which the infant must react with resultant annihilation of personal being. Winnicott foi supervisando de Melanie Klein (1882-1960)– psicanalista austríaca responsável por pioneiras teorias e descobertas acerca do aparelho psíquico do bebê e da criança – sendo que a teoria kleiniana serviu tanto para Winnicott confirmar algumas de suas investigações, como para o guiar e inspirar sua em própria teoria e abordagem, distinta da clínica de Klein. If they overlap there is a moment of illusion, a bit of experience which the infant can take as either his hallucination or a thing belonging to external reality.”  (Winnicott 1945, p. 152), The mother, at the beginning, by an almost 100 percent adaptation affords the infant the opportunity for the illusion that her breast is part of the infant. Here the new human being is in the position of creating the world. Sense of self and other are no longer only core entities of physical presence, action, affect, and continuity. A fruitful way to begin such research is by interpreting the work of a major figure in contemporary psychotherapy in the light of Voegelin’s mature philosophy. Large font | It is in the total set-up.” (Winnicott 1952a, p. 99), Winnicott uses the terms holding, handling, and object-presenting to refer to three aspects of the ordinary, good-enough mother’s care of her infant that are necessary conditions of his primitive emotional development.